In other words, Hardin was wrong. Ruin is not inevitable and we are not limited to two options for managing Commons. People can work together to manage their resources sustainably, without external restrictions or privatizing the common resource of the reserve. These three factors, disaster, inevitability and avoidability, are all grouped together in the fourth tragedy, the tragedy of the commons. Personal interests will use a freely available common resource against the long-term interest of each party. Mildenberger goes so far as to explain that «climate change is not a tragedy of the commons» and that we should abandon the whole «metaphor». The source was a recent paper by Thomas Hale of the University of Oxford. But this document says nothing like that. This is a piece of research that is directly part of the long tradition of common management studies. Hale calls climate protection «an essential global common good problem,» which could indeed be «a tragedy of the world`s commons» and that some actors, such as fossil fuel companies, are in fact involved in the classic tragedy of the commons. Among other drastic measures, they proposed starving countries that do not control population growth and fertility; and the introduction of forced sterilization programs, as implemented by Indira and Sanjay Gandhi in India. Honestly, there is no remorse for his failed predictions.
«We didn`t make predictions, even though some idiots think we have it.» 2 Another case of his failed predictions was his bet against Julian L. Simon in September 1980. He said famously: «If I were a player, I would even take money that England won`t exist in 2000.» Their disagreement was made on Simon to honestly give $10,000 to bet that the actual prices of five industrial metals (copper, chromium, nickel, tin and tungsten, chosen by Ehrlich himself) would show no increase over the next ten years: They all fell. Honesty and its supporters have turned into prophets of global warming. The phenomenon of the tragedy of the Commons, developed by Garrett Hardin in 1968, was discovered in 1833 by Oxford economist William Foster Lloyd in a position opposed to Adam Smith. In high school, I learned Adam Smith`s invisible hand; I didn`t learn anything about the communes. Today, climate change is generally considered an intergenerational tragedy of the commons. Environmentalists know it, economists know it. The American ecologist and philosopher Garrett Hardin wrote his 1968 paper «The tragedy of the commons». After 50 years, research in the management of municipalities continues to provide important knowledge. Nothing in the fight against climate change makes sense, other than in the face of the tragedy of the municipalities. As it was 50 years ago, the phenomenon of the commons should be well known to all, namely that a tragedy could still be avoided.
In the 1970s, there were many popular articles on global warming and other aspects of the energy crisis, but they did not show the crucial aspect of the tragedy of the commons.