The creation of trade and the diversion of trade are crucial effects that are identified in the establishment of a free trade agreement. The creation of businesses will shift consumption from a low-cost producer to a low-cost producer, and trade will therefore grow. On the other hand, trade diversion will shift trade from a lower-cost producer outside the territory to a more expensive producer under the free trade agreement.  Such a change will not benefit consumers under the FTA, as they will be deprived of the opportunity to purchase cheaper imported products. However, economists note that trade diversion does not always harm aggregate national welfare: it can even improve aggregate national welfare if the volume of diverted trade is low.  Trade agreements have advantages and disadvantages. By removing tariffs, they lower import prices and benefit consumers. However, some domestic industries are suffering. They cannot compete with countries that have a lower standard of living.
As a result, they can go bankrupt and their employees can suffer. Trade agreements often force a compromise between businesses and consumers. Or there could be policies that exempt certain products from duty-free status to protect domestic producers from foreign competition in their industries. A free trade agreement (FTA) or treaty is a multinational agreement under international law to form a free trade area among cooperating states. Free trade agreements, a form of trade pact, set the tariffs and tariffs that countries impose on imports and exports to reduce or eliminate barriers to trade and thereby promote international trade.  These agreements generally focus «on a chapter providing for preferential tariff treatment», but they often also contain «trade facilitation and rule-making clauses in areas such as investment, intellectual property, government procurement, technical standards, and sanitary and phytosanitary issues».  There are important differences between customs unions and free trade areas. Both types of trading blocs have internal agreements that the parties conclude in order to liberalize and facilitate trade between them. The crucial difference between customs unions and free trade areas lies in their relations with third parties [disambiguation required]. While a customs union requires all parties to establish and maintain identical external tariffs for trade with non-parties, parties to a free trade area are not subject to such a requirement. Instead, they may introduce and maintain customs treatment for imports from non-parties they deem necessary.  In a free trade area without harmonised external tariffs, the Parties will introduce a system of preferential rules of origin in order to eliminate the risk of trade offshoring.
 A free trade agreement (FTA) is a treaty between two or more countries aimed at facilitating trade and removing barriers to trade […].